Biology and Biological Control of Knapweed
Wilson, L.M. and Randall, C.B. 2005. Biology and Biological Control of Knapweed. USDA Forest Service FHTET-2001-07. 3rd Edition. 110 p.
About This Manual
This manual provides background information on each of the six knapweed species listed above, detailed descriptions of 13 knapweed biocontrol insects, and elements of a knapweed biocontrol program. The chapters are:
Chapter 1 provides detailed discussions of each of the knapweed species included in this manual. The species are identified by their scientific name, description of the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and habitat and occurrence in the United States. Photographs, drawings, and distribution maps are also provided.
Chapter 2 features knapweed biocontrol agents (flies, moths, and beetles) and their basic biology, including information on identification and lifecycle of each of the knapweed biocontrol agents. Information in this chapter is particularly useful in being able to identify each biocontrol agent in the field. Eight species of seedhead feeders and five root borers are described.
Chapter 3 includes detailed elements of a knapweed biocontrol program (planning, implementing, and evaluating). It encompasses techniques for all the agents. Included are guidelines for:
- Developing work schedules for field activities
- Selecting and preparing a release or nursery site
- Collecting, handling release, transporting and shipping biocontrol agents
- Monitoring agents and vegetation at the release site
Glossary defines technical terms essential in using and communicating about biological control effectively.
Selected References covers critical references from the comprehensive body of literature on knapweed biology, ecology, and biological control.
Appendices contains various insect release and monitoring forms, checklists, vegetation monitoring forms, and most important, a troubleshooting guide.
Appendix A: Troubleshooting Guide: When Things Go Wrong
Appendix B. Sample Biocontrol Agent Release Form
Appendix C: Monitoring Plan Questionnaire
Appendix D: Biocontrol Monitoring Report
Appendix E: Qualitative Monitoring Form
Appendix F: Quadrat Density and Cover Data Form
Appendix G: Macroplot Design for Measuring Density