Agrilus planipennis

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5016061
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Hexapoda (including Insecta)
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Buprestidae
Genus: Agrilus
Species: A. planipennis
Scientific Name
Agrilus planipennis
Fairmaire, 1888
Common Names

emerald ash borer

Author: Joseph LaForest, University of Georgia

Contents

Distrubution

Emerald ash borer (EAB) is native to Asia. It has been found in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Ontario and Quebec. EAB probably arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material from Asia.

Host Range

Hosts include all ash (Fraxinus spp.) species; however, green ash, white ash, and black ash are more susceptible than Asian varieties.

Pathways and modes of spread

Emerald ash borer can easily be spread through the movement of infested live ash trees, limbs, firewood, logs, and untreated ash lumber.

Identification

It is a small, brassy-green, metallic wood-boring beetle measuring 1/3 to 1/2 inches in length. Larvae have bell-shaped segments with two dark spines at the tip of the abdomen. These are urogomphi and are diagnostic for larvae in the genus Agrilus.

Life cycle

1460072
Photo by David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org

View in Bugwood Image Database

Females lay eggs 2 weeks after emergence. Eggs are initially light-yellow, turning to brownish-yellow before hatching. Eggs hatch in 1-2 weeks, and the tiny larvae bore through the bark and into the cambium and phloem. The creamy white larvae are 1 – 1 1/4 inches long with flat, broad, segmented bodies. Adults begin emerging in mid-June leaving 0.1 – 0.2 inches “D” shaped emergence holes. The life cycle in Michigan takes between 1-2 years depending on the climate.

Plant Response and Damage

5382317
Photo by Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org

View in Bugwood Image Database

Some irregular notching may be observed on the foliage as the newly emerged adults will feed on it. Larvae feed in the cambium creating S-shaped frass-packed tunnels. Vertical splits in the bark are created by the tree forming callus tissue in response to larval feeding. The damage by the larvae causes general yellowing and thinning of the foliage followed by crown dieback and the eventual death of the tree. Basal sprouting and the presence of woodpeckers may indicate wood-boring beetle activity. After 1 to 2 years of infestation, the bark often falls off in pieces from damaged trees, exposing the insect galleries.

Monitoring

Survey techniques include visual surveys, attractant-baited panel traps, and destructive sampling. Since it is possible to have no visible signs or symptoms in the first year of an infestation, visual surveys are helpful for locating older infestations. The panel traps have proven more effective for detecting early infestations since ti traps the adults as they are flying to new host trees. Traps should be placed when in early to mid june when adult emergence and flight is expected. Destructive sampling is performed in areas where a new infestation is suspected. This type of sampling is best done in late summer or early fall since larvae should be large enough to locate and identify.

Management Approaches

Biological Control

Three species of biocontrol have been researched and are currently being deployed. They include Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae). This is a long-term management method rather than one targeted at immediate control.

Chemical Control

Although there are chemical controls available for use over wide areas, several products have been tested for protection of individual trees.

INSECTICIDE FORMULATION ACTIVE INGREDIENT APPLICATION METHOD TIMING
Professional Use Products
Merit (75WP, 75WSP, 2F) Imidacloprid Soil injection or drench Mid-fall and/or mid- to late spring
Xytect (2F, 75WSP) Imidacloprid Soil injection or drench Mid-fall and/or mid- to late spring
IMA-jet Imidacloprid Trunk injection, Arborjet Early May to mid-June
Imicide Imidacloprid Trunk injection, Mauget Early May to mid-June
Pointer Imidacloprid Trunk injection, Wedgle Early May to mid-June
Inject-A-Cide B Bidrin Trunk injection, Mauget Early May to mid-June
TREE-age Emamectin benzoate Trunk injection, Arborjet Early May to mid-June
Safari (20 SG) Systemic bark spray Early May to mid-June
Astro Permethrin Preventive bark and foliage cover sprays 2 applications at 4-week intervals; first spray should occur when black locust is blooming
Onyx Bifenthrin Preventive bark and foliage cover sprays 2 applications at 4-week intervals; first spray should occur when black locust is blooming
Sevin SL Carbaryl Preventive bark and foliage cover sprays 2 applications at 4-week intervals; first spray should occur when black locust is blooming
Tempo Cyfluthrin Preventive bark and foliage cover sprays 2 applications at 4-week intervals; first spray should occur when black locust is blooming
Homeowner Products
Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub Insect Control Imidacloprid Soil drench Mid-fall or mid- to late spring

Not all treatments are as effective as others and some are not recommended in certain situations. Contact your local extension service for chemical control recommendations specific to your state and particular situation. Results of some tests have also been posted on EmeraldAshBorer.info.

Gallery




References

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