Authors: Van Driesche, R.G., J.H. LaForest, C.T. Bargeron, R.C. Reardon, and M. Herlihy. 2012. Forest Pest Insects in North America: a Photographic Guide. USDA Forest Service. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV. FHTET-2012-02.
Orientation to Pest
Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller), is an introduced insect in North America of European or Asian origin that feeds on elms (Ulmus). It overwinters as an adult in protected locations. Eggs are laid in clusters on elm leaves and larvae feed as leaf skeletonizers, while adults produce shot-hole damage to leaves. Eggs are pointed, rather than oval in outline. Pupation occurs at the base of infested trees. Two generations may occur per year.
Hosts Commonly Attacked
This beetle feeds on various imported or native elms (Ulmus), and is important as a pest of American elm (Ulmus americana L.)
Oomyzus gallerucae (Fonscolombe) (=Tetrastichus gallerucae [Boy]) is an introduced egg parasitoid of elm leaf beetle that is found in Missouri, where it is of major importance, and in California. The tachinid Erynniopsis antennata (Rondani) is an introduced larval parasitoid of elm leaf beetle that is established in California and of moderate importance there.
Biological Control Agents
- IPM helps control elm leaf beetle - University of California
- Fact Sheet - Colorado State University Extension
- Agricultural MU Guide - University of Missouri Extension
- Home & Garden Circular - Maryland Cooperative Extension
- Dreistadt, S. H. and D. L. Dahlsten. 1990. Distribution and abundance of Erynniopsis antennata (Dipt.: Tachinidae ) and Tetrastichus brevistigma [Hym.: Eulophidae ], two introduced elm leaf beetle parasitoids in northern California. BioControl 35: 527-536.
- Dreistadt, S. H. and D. L. Dahlsten. 1991. Establishment and overwintering of Tetrastichus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasitoid of the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in northern California. Environmental Entomology 20: 1711-1719.
- Meiners, T. and M. Hilker. 1997. Host location in Oomyzus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasitoid of the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Oecologia 112: 87-93.
- Puttler, B. and W. C. Bailey. 2003. Establishment of Oomyzus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an egg parasite of the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Missouri and adjacent states. Biological Control 27 20-24.