- Spartina alterniflora is a perennial grass that expands via underground rhizomes. It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in California. Hollow stems grow from 2-4 ft. (0.6-1.2 m) tall.
- Leaves are 8-20 in. (20-50 cm) long, 1-8 in. (2.5-20 cm) wide and are often purplish at the base.
- Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop.
- The fruit are flattened and smooth, with pointed tips. The plant also expands via underground rhizomes.
- Ecological Threat
- Spartina alterniflora was introduced on the west coast in the early 1970s to be used as erosion control. Plants have become extremely invasive in San Francisco Bay, Willapa Bay and Puget Sound.
- Walkup, C. J. 1991. Spartina alterniflora, Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
- Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs, Noxious Weed Control
- Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group
- Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Flora of China, www.eFloras.org
- California Invasive Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN