- Spartina alterniflora is a perennial grass that expands via underground rhizomes. It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in California. Hollow stems grow from 2-4 ft. (0.6-1.2 m) tall.
- Leaves are 8-20 in. (20-50 cm) long, 1-8 in. (2.5-20 cm) wide and are often purplish at the base.
- Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop.
- The fruit are flattened and smooth, with pointed tips. The plant also expands via underground rhizomes.
- Ecological Threat
- Spartina alterniflora was introduced on the west coast in the early 1970s to be used as erosion control. Plants have become extremely invasive in San Francisco Bay, Willapa Bay and Puget Sound.
Walkup, C. J. 1991. Spartina alterniflora, Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory 
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants 
Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs, Noxious Weed Control 
Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group 
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board 
University of California, Jepson Flora Project 
Flora of China, www.eFloras.org 
California Invasive Plant Council 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org