- Ricinus communis is an annual evergreen shrub that can grow from 3.3-16.4 ft. (1-5 m) tall.
- Stems are red to green or purple in color. Leaves are alternate, peltate, petiolate, palmate, toothed, and can be 11.8 in. (30 cm) across.
- Flowers are apetalous (without petals), pediculate with 5-parted calyx and many branching stamens and yellow anthers. Blooming occurs from August to November.
- Capsules are red, green or purple in color, covered in dense sharp spines, 0.6 in. (1.5 cm) in diameter, and contain 3 seeds. Seeds are mottled in color with black and copper colors.
- Ecological Threat
- Ricinus communis can be found in disturbed areas such as in fields, pastures and along roadsides and railroads. It is native to Asia. Be aware, this plant is extremely toxic to humans and consuming just a few seeds can be fatal.
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- John K. Francis, Research Forester, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry
- University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
- James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops, Purdue University
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Flora of Pakistan, www.eFloras.org
- California Invasive Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN