Authors: Karan Rawlins, Hillery Reeves and Kaylee Tillery at the Center for Invasive Species & Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia
water lettuce, tropical duckweed
- Pistia stratiotes is a sprawling, semi-woody shrub that invades wetlands in Florida. The green stems are up to 15 ft. (4.6 m) long and prickly.
- Leaves are flashy and arranged in a rosette. They measure 0.75-6 in. (2-15 cm) in length. The leaves are green to grayish-green, and have dense white hairs and parallel veins on their surface. As its common name indicates, the plant resembles a floating head of lettuce.
- This plant flowers year-round in southern Florida, but peaks during summer and early autumn.
- The hydrosoil under a Pistia stratiotes infestation was shown to hold 4,196 seeds/m2. Mature seeds in fruits had an 84% germination rate.
- Ecological Threat
- Pistia stratiotes, forms extensive mats that can block navigational channels, impede water flow in irrigation and flood control canals, and disrupt submersed animal and plant communities (Sculthorpe, 1967; Attionu, 1976; Bruner, 1982; Sharma, 1984). Pistia stratiotes is among the world’s worst weeds (Holm et al., 1977). It has been placed on prohibited plant lists in Florida (FDEP, 2000), Louisiana (LDWF, 2000), Mississippi (MDAC, 1997), and Texas (TPWD, 2000), and is considered a noxious species (an invasive species of concern, but not regulated) in South Carolina (SCDNR, 2000) and Delaware (DDFW, 2000).
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
- Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org
- Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council
- Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN
Images from Bugwood.org