- Olea europaea is a perennial tree that can grow from 26.2-49.2 ft. (8-15 m) tall.
- Leaves are thick, 1.6 in. (4 cm) long, lanceolate, opposite, leathery, somewhat hairy, and dark green on upper surface and greyish green on lower surface.
- Flowers are small, yellow to white in color, and clustered in groups of 15-30 flowers. Flowers bloom in early summer.
- Fruit is a drupe that is ovoid, 0.8-1 in. (2-2.5 cm) long, and green to blackish violet in color. The edible fruit surrounds the dark violet round seed.
- Ecological Threat
- Olea europaea is being grown as a crop in some states. It has escaped cultivation and can be found in disturbed areas including grasslands, scrublands, and urban areas. Olea europaea is native to Africa, Asia-temperate, and Europe.
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation
- Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Flora of Pakistan, www.eFloras.org
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Wildscreen, ARKive
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN