- Olea europaea is a perennial tree that can grow from 26.2-49.2 ft. (8-15 m) tall.
- Leaves are thick, 1.6 in. (4 cm) long, lanceolate, opposite, leathery, somewhat hairy, and dark green on upper surface and greyish green on lower surface.
- Flowers are small, yellow to white in color, and clustered in groups of 15-30 flowers. Flowers bloom in early summer.
- Fruit is a drupe that is ovoid, 0.8-1 in. (2-2.5 cm) long, and green to blackish violet in color. The edible fruit surrounds the dark violet round seed.
- Ecological Threat
- Olea europaea is being grown as a crop in some states. It has escaped cultivation and can be found in disturbed areas including grasslands, scrublands, and urban areas. Olea europaea is native to Africa, Asia-temperate, and Europe.
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation 
Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California 
University of California, Jepson Flora Project 
Flora of Pakistan, www.eFloras.org 
California Invasive Plant Council 
Wildscreen, ARKive 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org