Authors: Karan Rawlins, Hillery Reeves and Kaylee Tillery at the Center for Invasive Species & Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia
Eurasian water-milfoil, spiked watermilfoil
- Myriophyllum spicatum is a submersed aquatic plant that invades lakes, ponds, and other aquatic environments throughout the United States. The plants are rooted and the stems grow up to the water surface, usually reaching 3-10 ft. (0.9-3 m) in length and can be as much as 30 ft. (9.1 m) long.
- Leaves are bright green, finely dissected, and whorled. The delicate leaflets give this plant a feathery appearance.
- Myriophyllum spicatum has both male and female flowers on the same inflorescence. The female flowers are basal while the male flowers are located distally. The female flowers have a 4-lobed pistil and lack sepals and petals. The male flowers have 4 pink petals and 8 stamens.
- The very small globular fruit of Myriophyllum spicatum are indehiscent, and contain 4 seeds.
- Ecological Threat
- Myriophyllum spicatum requires stagnant to slowly moving water and can tolerate brackish conditions. It forms dense mats of leaves restricting light availability, leading to a decline in the diversity and abundance of native macrophytes. In addition, Myriophyllum spicatum displaces the native species of watermilfoil and reduces habitats for fish spawning and feeding. It is native to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa.
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
- University of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska Natural Heritage Program
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
- Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth (IPAMS)
- Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council
- Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council
- California Invasive Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN
Images from Bugwood.org