Imperata cylindrica

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Authors: Mandy Tu, ed. Barry Rice, Global Invasive Species Team, The Nature Conservancy

Contents


1380049
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Cyperales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Imperata
Species: I. cylindrica
Scientific Name
Imperata cylindrica
(L.) Beauv.
Scientific Name Synonym
Imperata arundinacea
(L.) Beauv.
Common Names

cogongrass, cogon grass, alang-alang, Japanese blood grass

Overview

Appearance
Imperata cylindrica is a perennial, colony-forming grass which can grow up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) tall.
Foliage
Leaves have an off-center, whitish midrib and finely serrated margins. Leaves are up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) long, 0.5-0.75 in. (1.3-1.9 cm) wide, stiff, and have a sharp, pointed apex. Rhizomes are whitish, branched, scaly and sharp at the tips.
Flowers
Flower heads are 2-8 in. (5.1-20.3 cm) long, silvery-white and cylindrical.
Fruit
Imperata cylindrica is best identified in the spring by the large fuzzy panicle of flowers and seeds, giving the plant a cottony or silky look.
Ecological Threat
Imperata cylindrica is an extremely aggressive invader with the capability of invading a range of sites. It forms dense, usually circular infestations that exclude all other vegetation. It is native to Southeast Asia and was accidently introduced into the southeast United States in packing material in the early 1900s. It was also intentionally introduced for erosion control and livestock forage.

Stewardship summary

Imperata cylindrica (family Poaceae) is a perennial rhizomatous grass commonly known as cogongrass or speargrass. It is native to Southeast Asia and is a widespread invader in many subtropical and tropical regions with over 490 million hectares (1.2 billion acres) infested worldwide.[1] Imperata cylindrica is listed as one of the top ten worst weeds in the world [2] and even though it is on the U.S. Federal Noxious Weed List (7CFR, 360.200), the cultivar I. cylindrica 'Red Baron' (Japanese blood grass) is excepted. It is undetermined if the 'Red Baron' cultivar will become an ecological threat in natural areas, but it is important that cultivars of known invasive species be clearly demonstrated to be non-invasive before its cultivars are offered for sale. Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron' has not been demonstrated to be non-invasive and this cultivar has already shown some invasive qualities in horticulture settings.

Natural history

Range and Impacts

Imperata cylindrica was first introduced into North America in Alabama and Mississippi in the early 1900s for forage, erosion control and as packing material. It currently infests several thousand acres in the U.S., primarily in the southeast, and is reported from Alabama, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Oregon [3], as well as from Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland.[4]

Imperata cylindrica has invaded a variety of wildland ecosystems such as desert dunes, wetlands, savannahs and forests, and it can also overtake disturbed areas such as roadsides, surface-mined lands and forestry plantations. In infested areas, I. cylindrica forms dense mats of thatch and leaves that shade and outcompete native plants, provides poor habitat and forage for animals, and can even alter fire regimes. For instance, even fire-adapted bunchgrass communities in Florida are subjected to more frequent and intense fires because of I. cylindrica fuels.[5] Imperata cylindrica displaced up to 80% of the resident plant community of a longleaf pine flatwoods in Mississippi in just three years. Furthermore, short herbs indicative of longleaf pine savannas were more vulnerable to displacement than were taller generalist species.[6] The primary mechanism involved in this displacement appeared to be related more to competition (shade) than to increased fire intensity.[6]

Cultivar: 'Red Baron'

The 'Red Baron' cultivar of I. cylindrica has bright, showy, blood-red leaf edges. It is frequently sold across the U.S. in plant nurseries and is widely available over the Internet for ornamental use. It is often described as being non-invasive, although published proof of this claim is lacking. Sales descriptions may mention that 'Red Baron' can occasionally lose the red color in their leaves over time (blades turn entirely green), becoming invasive.[7] It has been suggested that the red color or pigmentation may be a result of colder temperatures, since plants often revert to the green type when planted in southern regions (such as in Florida) or when grown in warm greenhouses.[8]

In colder climates such as in Connecticut, there are no accounts of 'Red Baron' flowering, setting seed, or even becoming established outside of cultivation.[9] It also supposedly rarely blooms in ornamental settings. However, since each plant can potentially produce up to 3,000 seeds per season [2], it would be prudent to carefully watch and monitor any planted varieties of I. cylindrica. Apparently, seedlings that have been produced by 'Red Baron' cultivars have the usual aggressive characters that make the "wild form" of the species problematic.

Resources

Information sources

Bibliography

  1. Lippincott, C. and S. McDonald. 1996. Imperata cylindrica – cogongrass. In: Randall, J.M. and J. Marinelli (eds.) Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden. Brooklin Botanic Garden, Brooklyn.
  2. Holm, L. G., P. Donald, J. V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger. 1977. The World's Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 609 pp. 2.0 2.1
  3. USDA, NRCS. 2001. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Accessed July 29, 2002.
  4. Johnson, E.R.R.L. and D.G. Shilling. PCA Alien Plant Working Group: Cogon Grass. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/imcyl.htm broken link. Accessed July 29, 2002.
  5. Lippincott, C.L. 2000. Effects of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (cogongrass) invasion on fire regime in Florida Sandhill (USA), Natural Areas Journal, 20:140-149.
  6. Brewer, J.S. 2008. Declines in plant species richness and endemic plant species in longleaf pine savannas invaded by Imperata cylindica. Biological Invasions 10:1257-1264. 6.0 6.1
  7. Missouri Botanic Garden. 2002. Kemper Center for Home Gardening: Imperata cylindrica ‘Red Baron’. http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/codea/D520.shtml broken link. Accessed July 31, 2002.
  8. Floridata. 2002. Floridata Plant Profile: Imperata cylindrica. http://www.floridata.com/ref/I/impe_cyl.cfm. Accessed July 31, 2002.
  9. Ellis, D. 2002. Co-Chair, Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group (CIPWG), personal communication.

Original document

Weed notes: Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron'; Mandy Tu, ed. Barry Rice, 2002.


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