- Ilex aquifolium is a large evergreen tree or shrub that can grow from 15-50 ft. (4.6-15.2 m) tall. Bark is smooth and can be grey to black in color.
- Leaves are alternate, thick, dark green, glossy, wavy, 1-3 in. (2.5-7.6 cm) long with sharp stout spines.
- Flowers are small, white, fragrant, and found in clusters. The blooming period occurs in late Spring and early summer from May to June.
- The berries are bright red to orange and yellow in color and 0.31 in. (8 mm) across. Each berry contains 4 seeds. Fruit ripens from August to October.
- Ecological Threat
- Ilex aquifolium can grow in shaded or sunny areas and is often found in forests. It is native to south and central Europe.
King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Water and Land Resources Division 
University of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska Natural Heritage Program 
University of California, Jepson Flora Project 
California Invasive Plant Council 
Wildscreen, ARKive 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org