- Ilex aquifolium is a large evergreen tree or shrub that can grow from 15-50 ft. (4.6-15.2 m) tall. Bark is smooth and can be grey to black in color.
- Leaves are alternate, thick, dark green, glossy, wavy, 1-3 in. (2.5-7.6 cm) long with sharp stout spines.
- Flowers are small, white, fragrant, and found in clusters. The blooming period occurs in late Spring and early summer from May to June.
- The berries are bright red to orange and yellow in color and 0.31 in. (8 mm) across. Each berry contains 4 seeds. Fruit ripens from August to October.
- Ecological Threat
- Ilex aquifolium can grow in shaded or sunny areas and is often found in forests. It is native to south and central Europe.
- King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Water and Land Resources Division
- University of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska Natural Heritage Program
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Wildscreen, ARKive
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN