- Hygrophila polysperma may be annual or perennial depending on location. The four angled stems grow from 4-8 in. (10-20 cm) tall and are often prostrate. Stems are slightly swollen above the nodes. It is native to temperate and tropical Asia, which includes China and India. It is cultivated in some areas.
- The petiolate leaves are ovate to lanceolate with a smooth margin.
- Hygrophila polysperma has tiny white flowers that bloom on terminal spikes from September to November.
- The fruits are oblong capsules with trichomes along the edge. Each fruit produces from 20-30 seeds. Fruits mature from October to January.
- Ecological Threat
- Hygrophila polysperma can become an invasive problem in some tropical and temperate regions outside of its native range. It is listed as a noxious weed in the United States. Hygrophila polysperma has only been reported in Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia. It has also been reported in Northern Mexico.
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
University of Florida, IFAS Extension, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants 
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council 
Flora of China, www.eFloras.org 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org