- Elaeagnus pungens is a dense evergreen shrub that invades natural areas throughout the southeastern United States. The shrub is often multi-stemmed and short. Sharp shoots give it a thorny appearance. Shrubs can grow 3.3-26.3 ft. (1-8 m) tall. Shrubs are usually very dense with long shoots extending from the top.
- The leaves are alternate, oval to elliptical, with irregular wavy margins and silvery surfaces, 2-4 in. (5.1-10.2 cm) in length and thick.
- The axillary clusters of small, sweet-smelling, white to brown flowers develop in the fall.
- Plants rarely fruit, but fruit are small, red and dotted with small brown scales.
- Ecological Threat
- Elaeagnus pungens closely resembles two other exotic olives, autumn olive and Russian olive. A high shade tolerance allows Elaeagnus pungens to invade both in open areas and under forest canopies. The seeds are dispersed by animals, giving this plant the potential for rapid spread. This plant is native to eastern Asia and was first introduced into the United States in 1830 as an ornamental.
Gucker, Corey L. 2011. Elaeagnus pungens. Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory 
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation 
Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth (IPAMS) 
Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council 
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council 
University of Florida IFAS Extension 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
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