Hexapoda (including Insecta)
Asian citrus psyllid
- Diaphorina citri, Asian citrus psyllid, is native to Asia. This insect is a vector for citrus greening which is a serious citrus disease caused by bacterial pathogens. Adult D. citri grow from 0.12-0.16 inches (3-4 mm) long. They have a mottled brown body with a light brown head. The forewing is broadest at the tip with a brown mottled band around the outside edge. The antennae are black at the tips. Nymphs are usually yellowish orange and may resemble aphids.
- Life Cycle
- Female D. citri lay their eggs on the growing shoots and between unfurling leaves of citrus. Nymphs pass through five instars before reaching maturity in from 15 to 47 days. There are nine to 10 generations per year. Adults may live for several months.
- D. citri has been reported in Africa, Central America, South America, Afghanistan and the Caribbean. D. citri have been reported in several states and some territories of the United States.
- Control Efforts
- Diaphorina citri is the vector for a serious citrus disease called citrus greening. Quarantines are part of the plan to slow their spread to new areas. Unmanaged citrus groves may act as a place of safety for D. citri, allowing them to reinfest managed groves from these unmanaged groves. Common predators that give some biological control of D. citri include generalists such as ladybeetles, syrphid flies, and spiders.
- F. W. Mead and T. R. Fasulo. Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. University of Florida, IFAS Extension.
- D.R. Boina, W.L. Meyer, E.O. Onagbloa and L.L. Stelinski. 2009. Quantifying dispersal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management. Environmental Entomology, Aug 38(4):1250-8.
- J-H Chong, A.L. Roda and C. M. Mannion. 2010. Density and Natural Enemies of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in the Residential Landscape of Southern Florida, Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 27(1):33-49.
- J. A. Qureshi, M. E. Rogers, D.G. Hall, and P.A. Stansly. 2009. Incidence of Invasive Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Its Introduced Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida Citrus. Horticultural Entomology, 102 (1): 248-256.
Images from Bugwood.org