- Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. (0.2-1.2 m) tall. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year.
- The first year, the basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8 in. (15.2-20.3 cm) long. The leaves on the flowering stem are alternate and narrower towards the top of the plant.
- In the early summer, flowers appear in racemes from the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers are reddish-purple with a five-lobed corolla.
- Each flower can produce up to 4 fruits. The fruits are nutlets, the surfaces of which are flat and densely covered with small, barbed hooks (glochidia) that facilitate dispersal by animals.
- Ecological Threat
- Cynoglossum officinale invades disturbed areas, roadsides, rangeland, old fields and meadows, forest margins, riparian zones and coastal sand dunes. It is native to Eurasia.
Zouhar, Kris 2002. Cynoglossum officinale. Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory 
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Water and Land Resources Division 
Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs, Noxious Weed Control 
U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board 
University of California, Jepson Flora Project 
Nevada department of Agriculture 
California Invasive Plant Council 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org