- Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. (0.2-1.2 m) tall. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year.
- The first year, the basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8 in. (15.2-20.3 cm) long. The leaves on the flowering stem are alternate and narrower towards the top of the plant.
- In the early summer, flowers appear in racemes from the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers are reddish-purple with a five-lobed corolla.
- Each flower can produce up to 4 fruits. The fruits are nutlets, the surfaces of which are flat and densely covered with small, barbed hooks (glochidia) that facilitate dispersal by animals.
- Ecological Threat
- Cynoglossum officinale invades disturbed areas, roadsides, rangeland, old fields and meadows, forest margins, riparian zones and coastal sand dunes. It is native to Eurasia.
- Zouhar, Kris 2002. Cynoglossum officinale. Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory
- Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission
- King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks Water and Land Resources Division
- Oregon Department of Agriculture Plant Programs, Noxious Weed Control
- U.S. Geological Survey Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
- Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Nevada department of Agriculture
- California Invasive Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN