Cayratia japonica

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Author: Mandy Tu, Global Invasive Species Team, The Nature Conservancy

Contents


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Taxonomy
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rhamnales
Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Cayratia
Species: japonica
Scientific Name
Cayratia japonica
(Thunb.) Gagnepain
Common Names

bushkiller, sorrel vine

Overview

Appearance
Cayratia japonica is a perennial vine with compound leaves.
Foliage
Each leaf has 5 leaflets that are ovate to orbicular, 1.2-3 in. (3-8 cm) long and 0.5-1.5 in. (1.5-4 cm) wide. Tendrils grow opposite each leaf.
Flowers
Flowering occurs in the late summer. The small, salmon-colored flowers develop in umbels.
Fruit
Fruits are black or white berries that each contain 2-4 seeds.
Ecological Threat
It is thought that Cayratia japonica only reproduces vegetatively in North America. Vines can readily climb over other vegetation, where it can block out sunlight to the plants below. It is native to temperate and sub-tropical Asia.

Taxonomy

Synonyms of C. japonica include: Causonis japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Raf., Cissus japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Willd., Cissus tenuifolia F. Heyne ex Planch., Columella japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Merr., Vitis japonica Thunb. ex Murray, Vitis leucocarpa Hayata, and Vitis tenuifolia (F. Heyne ex Planch.) Laws in Hook.f..[1]

The common name "bushkiller" signifies its ability to kill other plants by blocking out sunlight and weighing them down.

Stewardship

Cayratia japonica is a perennial vine in the grape family (Vitaceae), and is native to a wide area of temperate and southeast Asia. It is occasionally

cultivated as an ornamental in North America. Cayratia japonica reproduces rapidly and prolifically, and can readily climb into trees and shrubs where it may block sunlight and even break the supporting trees with their weight. In North America, small populations of C. japonica have been reported from Texas and Louisiana [2], and represent a potential threat to native communities along the Gulf Coast.[3]

Natural history

Description

Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae - grape family) is a vine with glabrous, 5-foliate leaves, which are generally 3 to 8 cm long and 1.5 to 4 cm broad. The leaflets are ovate to orbicular-ovate in shape, and bifid tendrils arise opposite from each leaf along the stem. The inflorescences are 6 to 10 cm long corymbs or umbels, and the flowers are small and salmon-colored, with a distinctive cup-shaped disc. The sepals are obscure, the petals are ovate, and there are 4 anthers. The fruits are rounded 2 to 4-seeded berries, and seeds are triangular in shape.[4]

The overall consequences of this new invader are unknown. Immediate impacts include the ability of C. japonica to kill the plant it grows upon, by stressing it with its weight, blocking out sunlight[5], or competing for other resources. It is not known if C. japonica can act as a ladder fuel.

Reproduction

In its native range, C. japonica reproduces both by seed and vegetatively. In North America, however, it appears that C. japonica reproduces only vegetatively. Brown (1992)[5] reported that the flowers of C. japonica seemed to fall off rather than set fruit in Texas. Pat Duncan (2001)[3] states that C. japonica reproduces rapidly and prolifically, and should be eradicated before it becomes widespread.

Range

Cayratia japonica is native to temperate-subtropical Asia. It has been reported from Japan, southern China, Indo-China, the Philippines, Taiwan, New Guinea, and Queensland.[1][6] [7][8]

In North America, C. japonica is currently reported from only Louisiana and Texas.[2] It generally occurs in damp, deciduous river bottoms [8], but has also been reported from developed and cultivated areas, such as the Mercer Arboretum in Houston, Texas, and possibly the New Orleans Botanical Garden in Louisiana.[3] There are no reports of C. japonica invading outside of North America.

Management/Monitoring

Cayratia japonica is very difficult to remove once an infestation has become established. Little information is available on its control. Pat Duncan has tried to control it with herbicides at Mercer Botanic Garden in Texas, but has only been able to reduce cover of the infestation by 30% over three years. Digging, or wrenching it out of the ground may be an option, but since it reproduces vegetatively, caution should be used to remove all stem and root fragments to prevent resprouts.

Resources

Information sources

Bibliography

  1. TROPICOS. 2001. Missouri Botanical Garden's W3TROPICOS database (www.tropicos.org). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. 1.0 1.1
  2. USDA NRCS. 1999. The PLANTS database (www.plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA 2.0 2.1
  3. Duncan, P. 2001. Missouri Botanical Garden, personal communication. 3.0 3.1 3.2
  4. Editorial Committee (Eds.). 1993. Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition. Volume Three: Angiosperms-Dicotyledons (Hamamelidaceae - Umbelliferae). Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Taipei.
  5. Brown, L.E. 1992. Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) and Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae) adventive in Texas. Phytologia 72(1): 45-47. 5.0 5.1
  6. Thomas, M. 2002. Personal communication, Queensland Herbarium.
  7. Hsu, T.-W. and C.-S. Kuoh. 1999. Cayratia maritima B.R. Jackes (Vitaceae), a new addition to the flora of Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 40: 329-332.
  8. Shinners, L.H. 1964. Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) in southeastern Louisiana: new to the United States. Sida 1: 384. 8.0 8.1

Source document

Weed Alert! Cayratia japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Gagnep.; Mandy Tu, 2001.


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