Author: Eric Day, Virginia Tech
Description of Damage
Needles in area of feeding become yellowish or straw colored and die. Damaging stages - all stages.
Males most easily observed. They have an elongate white covering with a yellow cap at one end. The female coverings are circular and tan in color. The female under the cover is also circular and yellow in color.
Fifteen to forty eggs are laid beneath female scale about the first of May. Hatching occurs about the first of June. The crawlers settle shortly after hatching and begin feeding. The females have 3 instars, the males, 5 instars. The males do not overwinter. They develop by fall, emerge, mater, and die soon after. One or two generations per year. Overwintering stage - fertilized adults.
At least 2 sprays 1 week apart beginning about the first of June. Eggs hatch over a period of 2 weeks or more. Dormant sprays help but are not thoroughly effective. Oils are not as effective as lime sulfur, but lime sulfur severely stains white paint, woodwork, and stone work.
We still lack a thoroughly effective control. Control measures should be applied for 2-3 years to clear up infestations.