- Brassica nigra is an annual plant that can grow 2-8 ft. (0.6-2.5 m) tall, branching occasionally.
- The leaves are alternate up to 10 in. (25 cm) long and 3 in. (7.6 cm) across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stems. The lower leaves are pinnate and obovate. The upper surface of a lower leaf is often has scattered hairs that are stiff, short, and white.
- Flowers are in clusters that are 0.5-2 ft. (0.15-0.61 m) long when fully mature. Each flower can be 0.3 in. (7.6 mm) across, consisting of 4 yellow petals. The petals are rounded toward their tips. Flowers are in bloom during the summer.
- Fruit is about 0.67 in. (17 mm) long and tapering to a conical beak. The seeds are dark brown to black in color with a pungent taste.
- Ecological Threat
- Brassica nigra prefers disturbed areas including meadows, thickets, areas along railroads and roadsides. It is native to Eurasia.
James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops, Perdue University 
University of California, Jepson Flora Project 
Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org 
California Invasive Plant Council 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org