- Brassica nigra is an annual plant that can grow 2-8 ft. (0.6-2.5 m) tall, branching occasionally.
- The leaves are alternate up to 10 in. (25 cm) long and 3 in. (7.6 cm) across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stems. The lower leaves are pinnate and obovate. The upper surface of a lower leaf is often has scattered hairs that are stiff, short, and white.
- Flowers are in clusters that are 0.5-2 ft. (0.15-0.61 m) long when fully mature. Each flower can be 0.3 in. (7.6 mm) across, consisting of 4 yellow petals. The petals are rounded toward their tips. Flowers are in bloom during the summer.
- Fruit is about 0.67 in. (17 mm) long and tapering to a conical beak. The seeds are dark brown to black in color with a pungent taste.
- Ecological Threat
- Brassica nigra prefers disturbed areas including meadows, thickets, areas along railroads and roadsides. It is native to Eurasia.
- James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops, Perdue University
- University of California, Jepson Flora Project
- Flora of North America, www.eFloras.org
- California Invasive Plant Council
- USDA NRCS PLANTS
- USDA ARS GRIN