- This is a small fern with a triangular frond measuring up to 1 in. (2.5 cm) in length which floats on the water.
- The frond is made up of many rounded or angular overlapping leaves each 0.08 in. (0.2 cm.) long. They are green, blue-green, or dark red in color and coated in tiny hairs, giving them a velvety appearance. The hairs make the top surface of the leaf water-repellent, keeping the plant afloat.
- Ferns do not produce a flower.
- Small fruit that has a capsule that contains 64 small spores.
- Ecological Threat
- It can quickly spread to cover open areas of water. It forms dense surface mats that impede water flow and navigation, and clog irrigation pumps. The mats also reduce oxygen levels and light available to other aquatic organisms. It can be found in lakes, slow moving rivers and streams, ponds and wetlands.
Global Invasive Species Database. 2011. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission 
CABI Invasive Species Compendium
North Carolina State University 
USDA NRCS PLANTS 
USDA ARS GRIN 
Images from Bugwood.org