Large larch bark beetle (Ips cembrae)
Kolk A. and Starzyk J. R. 1996.The Atlas of Forest Insect Pests. The Polish Forest Research Institute. Multico Warszawa. 705 pp.
The southern and central Europe, Siberia, Korea, Taiwan and Japan.
Mainly the larch, rarely the stone pine, Scots pine, Norway spruce and fir.
Adults are 3.8-6.0 mm long, cylindrical, robust. The body is brownish-black and shiny. The elytral declivity is shiny with 4 teeth on margins of both sides. The second tooth has a wide basis and the third one is the biggest, club-like on its top.
Overwintering occurs in the imago stage, sporadically in the larval or pupal stage. The first generation is active in April-May, and the second one, if develops, in August-September. Sister generations can also occur. The male adult chews the nuptial chamber, where mates with 2 up to 7 females. Maternal galleries are irregular, longer than 10 cm. Larval galleries are dense, irregular and short. Larvae pupate in the bark and sapwood. After hatching, young adults have a maturation feeding in 1-3 year old shoots in the top of larches. Sometimes they have the maturation feeding in galleries under the bark and make characteristic horn like tunnels. Old adults have the regeneration feeding in the prolonged maternal galleries, under the bark of stumps or in the terminals of larches.
The secondary pest of the larch. It attacks weakened or wind broken trees and the timber, particularly insolated. Maturation and regeneration feeding of adults causes much damage in crowns because damaged shoots can be easily broken by a wind.
Preventive measures and control
Cutting and removal or burning of weakened trees and slash, mainly tops and thick branches, from October through April. Cutting and removal or burning of infested trees and slash on clear-cuts. The use of trap trees in March, May, and July.