Anoplophora glabripennis

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5017023
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Hexapoda (including Insecta)
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Cerambycidae
Genus: Anoplophora
Species: glabripennis
Scientific Name
Anoplophora glabripennis
(Motschulsky, 1853)
Common Names

Asian longhorned beetle

Author: Joseph LaForest, University of Georgia

Contents

Overview

Origin
Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, is native to Asia (principally China) and invasive in parts of western Europe, and in several American cities, where eradication efforts are underway. This borer attacks a variety of hardwood trees.
Spread
In China, Asian longhorned beetles are not damaging in forests, but because of extensive planting of certain poplars (exotic varieties) that proved highly susceptible to the species, the insect increased in abundance. This action facilitated the beetle's dissemination to other countries because infested wood was used for packing material.
Ecological Threat
In southern Asia, a generation requires one year, but in northern areas, two years are required. Generations may be overlapping. Unlike many cerambycids, A. glabripennis attacks healthy trees as well as those under stress. Several generations can develop within an individual tree, eventually killing it.
Adults
Adults emerge over an extended period from spring to fall, but especially in late June to early July. Adults remain on or near their emergence tree and engage in maturation feeding on leaves, petioles, and tender bark. Eggs are laid singly under the bark, in egg sites chewed by females.
Larvae
Larvae feed in the cambium layer of the tree and later into the heartwood. Larvae dig pupation chambers inside the tree, which can be filled with frass. Adults emerge via large (0.4 in. [1 cm] dia) round exit holes, which are a visible sign of infestation.

Hosts

Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian longhorned beetle) is an insect pest known to attack at least 18 species of hardwood trees including maple, birch, horse chestnut, poplar, willow, elm, ash, and black locust

Distribution

Although it is a native pest in China and other nearby Pacific Rim countries, it has been introduced to several regions worldwide including Chicago, Illinois and the New York City area. Quarantine programs have been setup to combat this pest as it is discovered.

Identification

Eggs are off-white and slightly concave at both ends. Larvae are pale-yellow larvae are worm¬like, elongate, and cylindrical with a varied texture on the underside; the eighth segment of the abdomen has a protruding structure. The pupae are off-white, 25-30 mm long and 8 mm wide and begin to resemble the adult beetles. Adults are 25-30 mm long, shiny-black with white spots. They have black-and-white banded antennae that are at least as long as their bodies. The upper sections of the legs of the adults are whitish-blue. Asian longhorned beetle can be distinguished from related species, such as citrus longhorned beetle A. chinensis, by the markings on the wing covers and the pattern of the antennae.

Life cycle

Asian longhorned beetles require between one to three years to reach maturity. Adult females chew out a place to lay their eggs forming oval to round, darkened wounds in the bark. Eggs are laid singly and they secrete a substance that hardens over and protects the egg. Larvae develop out of the laid eggs and chew banana-shaped galleries into the heartwood, which they will feed in during fall and winter. Adults emerge during the spring through large round holes (10 mm diameter) that may occur anywhere on the tree including branches, trunk, and exposed roots. These exit holes can number in the thousands per tree.

Entry pathway

The pest is readily moved in solid wood packing material and infested tree-based materials including logs and firewood.

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